Education: The Military's First and Best Line of Defense

The idea now prevalent among some defense officials that formal classroom-based education is either expendable or unnecessary flies in the face of millennia of historical precedent. Brilliant strategists and military leaders not only tend to have had excellent education, but most acknowledge the value and influence of their mentors. The roll call of the intellectual warriors is sometimes the best argument in support of training armies to think: Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Napoleon Bonaparte, Robert E. Lee, Erwin Rommel, George Patton, Chester Nimitz.

In stark contrast we can cite familiar military leaders whose educations were, we say, lackluster: the Duke of Wellington (he beat Napoleon – barely – after a slugging 7-year campaign), Ulysses Grant, George Custer, Adolph Hitler, Hermann Goering, Josef Stalin, Mao Tse Tung, Manuel Noriega. For these men, military victories were often a matter of luck over tactics, overwhelming force over innovative planning, and soldiers more fearful than their masters than of the enemy.

I am a moderate, neither "red" nor "blue," with leanings in both camps. I firmly resist a draft, but support (and was once part of) ROTC. When I read that Columbia University had voted overwhelmingly to ban the Officer Officer Training Corps from returning to the campus, I felt that the concept of academic freedom itself had been violated. It is not the university's place to impute value judgments or decision on moral issues. Instead, universities were intended to be places where minds could visit among a broad range of viewpoints, hopefully to pick and choose the best parts from among them. By banning a campus ROTC contingent, Columbia has denied students that choice, and as an academic I am ashamed for them.

ROTC has much to offer university students, including (sometimes especially) those not enrolled as officer candidates. As a thirty-something graduate student working on my master's degree, I enrolled and participated in two ROTC history classes being taught by a multi-decorated Marine colonel, himself a holder of a master's degree in history. The things I learned about military implications of the battles we studied, the social effects of each decision, and the pains taken by most leaders to secure better materiel and intelligence for their troops far exceeded anything taught in the history department's coverage of the same incidents. It was from that extraordinarily patriotic US Marine career officer that I learned, for example, that during the War of 1812 the US invaded Canada and, when it discovered it could not succeed, burned the national Parliament buildings. It was for that last action that British soldiers later pressed on to Washington and set fire to the US Capitol and White House.

Does any of that make a difference? Indeed, I think it is crucial to national survival that soldiers and the public know the big picture behind events that becoming rallying later later. After 9/11, a precious few people asked the loaded question, "what have we done to incur this attack?" The overwhelming response was to stifle such questions – the US were the good guys, and those religious fanatics were angry because they were jealous of our luxury and wealth – and simply treat the attackers as nameless, inhuman enemies. There was no question allowed as to what the real problem might be, only that the US must attack them and annihilate aggression. But what competent physician, I ask, treats only a symptom but ignores the cause of the disease? According to numerous studies mandated by the UN and other agencies, the most important change that would most work towards eliminating poverty and war would be the universal access of women to an education.

We may "Remember the Alamo," but how many recall that Texas was either part of the US then, nor was it trying to become a state. It was seeking independence as a nation so it could maintain slavery, which Mexico had outlawed. When we "Remember the Maine," do we also recall that the ship was probably sunk by an engineering problem, and not from Spanish sabotage? That the war was pushed by US hawks and newspaper magnate William Randolph Hurst, knowing that a war would greatly boost newspaper sales? We must learn from history, because we are already doomed to repeating it. The 9/11 attack was carried out out predominately by Saudi Arabs, but the US response was to attack Iraq. Despite a preponderance of evidence that Iraq had nothing to do with 9/11, the American public still preferred the fabrications about anthrax attacks, WMDs, and terrorist training camps.

So what of military plans to merely enlarge the distance learning programs to replace classroom instruction? As a career teacher, I risk sounding like a ludite when I disparage distance learning. In my experience, there can be no substitute for a human-to-human interaction, where ideas can be immediately sorted, argued, and revised. Seeing the emotional expression of classmates when one discusses controversies ranging from "just wars" to the use of nuclear weapons to the pros and cons of a given policy simply can not be part of an electronic lesson. There is simply no substitution, for example, to having a combat veteran point out "I was there" in a class when another student has presented the sanitized version of a controversial event. That level of emotion will not come through a cable modem. We are already becoming extremely dependent upon the impersonal Internet, so how much more non-human contact can possibly be good for our psychological, especially empathic, development.

Historically, one of the first tragedies of war – after truth and diversity of opinion – is basic humanity. In wars, our soldiers do not kill Germans, French, British, Indians, Japanese, or Vietnamese people. Almost from the beginning, they instead fight krauts, frogs, limeys, savages, nips, or gooks. How much more difficult is it for a poorly educated soldier to understand the enemy when the enemy has been made subhuman? How, perfectly, can the war be won and, more important, peace maintained if we can not understand (but not necessarily agree with) the enemy?
It is unfortunate that the senior military officers so often bring the brunt of public hostility for actions made by civil authorities. The present administration is among the most academically impoverished in US history, while the senior officers are among the most highly educated. While it is true that some soldiers actually enjoy combat, the vast majority would welcome, nay embrace, a career of unbroken peace. The intelligent career soldier trains to protect that which he or she most values, knowing that wars are inevitable. Most pray that they need never fight, but stand ready to put their lives on the line should the rest of us need protection. Rather than reduce, compromise, or restrict education to these defenders, I would argue instead that they all receive free access to our universities and colleges. The academic world needs to get behind a unified message: education is not a privilege; It is the first and best line of defense.

Automotive Industry at a Glance

The World Automobile Industry is enjoying the period of relatively strong growth and profits, yet there are many regions which are under the threat of uncertainty. Carmakers look for better economies, market conditions which are ideal to have a successful stay in the industry. The automotive industry has a few big players who have marked their presence globally and General Motors, Ford, Toyota, Honda, Volkswagen, and DC are among them. It has also been suggested that automotive industry has accelerated more, after the globalization period, due to easy accessibility & facilities among nations and migrants among giant automakers of the world.

Moreover, the advances in industrialization led to a rise in the growth and production of the Japanese and German markets, in particular. But in 2009, the global car and automotive sales industry experienced a cogent declination which was during the global recession, as this industry is indirectly dependent on economic returns in employment and spending making, it vulnerable. While demand for new and used vehicles in mature markets (eg Japan, Western Europe and the United States) fell during the economic recession, the industry flourished in the developing economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China. Boost in global trade has enabled the growth in world commercial distribution systems, which has also inflated the global competition among the automotive manufacturers. Japanese automakers in particular, have initiated innovative production methods by adapting and modifying the US manufacturing model, as well as utilizing the technology to elevate production and give better competition. The World Automotive industry is dynamic and capable, accounting for approximately one in ten jobs in developed countries.

Developing countries often resort to their local automotive sector for economic growth opportunities, possibly because of the vast links that the auto industry of the country, has to other sectors. China is by far the largest market for sales followed by Japan, India, Indonesia, and Australia. Sales figures of 2005 to 2013 indicate that sales for vehicles in China doubled during this period, while Indonesia and India also benefited. However, there was a slump in sales during this time in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Interestingly, this year competition in the truck segment has become more intense, with the three big US automakers striving for supremacy in both performance and fuel economy. The Japanese are not giving up, either, with both Toyota and Nissan launching new pickups in 2015.

India is the seventh largest producer of automobiles globally with almost an average production of 17.5 million vehicles with the auto industry's contribution amounting to 7% of the total GDP. It has been estimated that, by 2020 the country will witness the sale of more than 6 million vehicles annually. India is expected to be the fourth largest automotive market by volume in the world where, two-wheeler production has grown from 8.5 Million units annually to 15.9 Million units in the last seven years and tractor sales are expected to grow at CAGR of 8-9 %, In next five years, making India a potential market for the International Brands. As 100% Foreign Direct Investment is allowed in this Sector, India is expected to have a speedy expansion, to, soon to become the largest automobile Industry. While India is the second largest manufacturer of two-wheelers and largest of motorcycles, it is also estimated to become the 3rd largest automobile market in the world by 2016 and will account for more than 5% of global vehicle sales. As large number of products are available to consumers across various segments, providing a large variety of vehicles of all types, manufacturers aim towards customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Following the FDI policy, entry of a number of foreign players with reduced overall product lifecycle and quicker product launches have become a regular occurrence in the automotive industry of the country. Indian auto market is seen as the potential market which can dominate the Global auto industry in coming years. Moreover, giant dealers and manufacturers are inclining towards the country because of ease of financial norms as well as an environment so conducive to support in their projects.

With Narendra Modi's Make in India Campaign, the automotive industry is expected to witness quite a few changes, where 800 Cr have been allocated in the Budget to promote the Energy and Hybrid Vehicles manufacturing. This move is expected to cut down the prices making these electric and hybrid vehicles cheaper and more eco-friendly. It is also expected that this move will shrink down the carbon dioxide emissions to 1.5% till 2020. This program will subsidize the purchase of new hybrid and electric cars, as well as other vehicle types. It specifies incentives of up to 29,000 rupees for scooters and motorcycles, and up to 138,000 rupees for cars. Three-wheeled vehicles, light commercial vehicles, and buses will also be eligible for incumbents of varying amounts as well.

The used cars sector in India has emerged as one of the major industries due to its easy accessibility and lower rate of interests. But growth in used car sales are lower than new car sales as people still prefer to purchase new cars as opposed to buying used ones. A big reason of this could be the fact that there is a reduced supply of used cars, and high prices of these used cars are pushing the consumers to opt for the low priced new cars. But despite the lower growth compared to new cars segment, used car industry has been showing a fast and steady growth. According to the industry analysts, the sales of used cars are expected to boost up in the next few years.

Till last decade, consumers were involved in unorganized sector of Used vehicles industry, there were no organized players to assist the consumers in buying used vehicles, and about 60% of used vehicle sales were customer to customer where there is a trust factor. The remaining sales were managed by the local dealers. But then in 2001, Maruti came with the first company of selling used cars in 2001- Maruti True Value. Despite the automotive industry witnessed slow sales numbers in the last few quarters, the used or pre-owned car segment is growing fast, and is likely to accelerate in future. In fact in the last fiscal year, more used cars were transacted, 10% more than the new ones, according to the assessment by Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. And Honda Siel Car India Ltd. With the organized players stepping in, the used cars market has benefited from fair deals, warranties, better retail network, reliability, transparency, easy availability of finances. These have all made buying a used car easy. Organized used car showrooms provide the platform to the prospective consumers to choose cars from various brands and segments. Car makers have realized the potential of used car market and are making conscious decisions to operate in the pre-owned car sector also. Beside exhibiting multiple brands, the branded used car retailers, also offer one-stop shop for all inquiries and grievances. All the major Car dealers have now established their pre-owned car segment retail showrooms, Maruti True Value, Ford Assured, Hyundai Advantage and Toyota U Trust are some of the major used car dealers.

Constant decline in fuel prices and better financial policies in the past year are the factors that are being expected to be the reasons for the number of new buyers to be increased in the market, which declined in 2013-14. But during this period, one segment that benefited from this decision was the used vehicle market, with increased awareness, financial reforms and organized firms. Most of these used cars Buyers are younger people who prefer buying Pre-owned cars which come at lower prices and they get a good bargain for the same. Indian used vehicle market which is still, almost quarter of new vehicle market is growing at a rapid pace. The Pre-owned car sector is expected to grow by 15-18% in coming years.

Also with the rising in number of organized players have boosted the amount of confidence people are putting in buying a pre-owned car. These players not only offer a good line up of used cars but also offer finance & extensive vehicle check facility for 100% customer satisfaction.

The Automotive Industry is an important part of every economy as it is interrelated to growth of sectors of the economy. India as one of the progressing economy is resolving towards making its automobile industry more and more highly competent, linking it to overall development. With the Make in India Campaign and promotion of eco-friendly vehicles, India is expected to soon become the largest automobile industry globally. Used vehicle industry is expected huge gains with more and more people resolving to it along with the growth in the new car market. With more resources for the buyers and sellers, the automotive industry is expected to flourish meritoriously in coming future extremely taking the country forward.

RMS Titanic Insurance Claims

It is exactly 100 years since the pride of the White Star Line, the RMS Titanic, hit an iceberg in the Atlantic Ocean and sank with the loss of over 1500 lives.

The centenary has prompted many insurance companies on both sides of the Atlantic to publish documents relating to the greatest maritime loss to date in relative costs, mostly showing their company’s involvement with claims payouts.

When the Titanic sank on the 15th of April 1912, the Lutine Bell was rung at Lloyd’s of London, and a very rapid claims process was begun.

A few months earlier the ships owners, the White Star Line, had instructed insurance brokers Willis Faber and Co. to find cover for the hull, cargo, contents and personal effects of the ship. Willis Faber passed the ‘slip’ to their Lloyd’s mercantile division where it was assessed and subsequently underwritten by multiple syndicates and insurance underwriters acting on behalf of members.

The Titanic’s hull was insured for total loss for $5 million or just over one million pounds sterling at the exchange rate of the time. The policy also included total loss cover for cargo at $600,000 and contents at $400,000 a value equivalent to two hundred thousand pounds.

The original broking slip passed around Lloyd’s has been lost, but was photographed and can be seen in Wright and Fayles book of 1928 called ‘A history of Lloyd’s’. It shows that seven large insurance companies took nearly forty percent of the risk between them and the other sixty percent was underwritten by over seventy individuals and Lloyd’s ‘Names’.

According to documents recently released by Willis the marine insurance policy cost White Star £7500 or $38,000 to insure the Titanic at a rate of 15 shillings per hundred. Modern day rates for cruise liners are considerably lower.

The Ship was considerably underinsured for a value of only five-eighths of its replacement cost. This was apparently because the owners thought the hull to be unsinkable and were prepared to bear the additional $3 million dollars of risk themselves.

Willis state that despite the owners belief in the vessel being unsinkable, they had trouble placing all the hull cover at Lloyd’s and some forty thousand pounds was underwritten in Germany. There was also an extremely high excess or deductible of 15% of the insured value.

Four days after the Titanic sank the US senate held a preliminary investigation at the Waldorf Hotel in New York. The surviving officers of the ship presented their evidence to the panel describing the events of the sinking and signed what is called a ‘protest’ which enable insurance claims to be paid.

Incredibly White Star were reimbursed for the loss of the hull within seven days of the sinking, presumably minus the excess, and fully paid up on cargo and contents losses within thirty days.

They were however grossly underinsured for their liability to others given the value of the people on board. Claims against the company exceeded their cover by over $1 million and whether they had private P and I accident cover for their staff liability, remains a mystery. Suffice to say that payouts to families of lost members of the crew, were paltry.

Claims for the loss of people amounted to in excess of five times what the value of the ship was worth, for those lucky ones who happened to have had life insurance policies or had taken out travellers personal accident cover. Although no disputes about loss of life occurred, families had to wait a lot longer than White Star for compensation.

The final payout for human losses has never been fully asserted as over one hundred and fifty different life of accident insurance companies were involved in cover, on both sides of the Atlantic. American companies took the bulk of the claims, due to the many rich entrepreneurs and millionaire family members who were drowned.

The total loss is estimated to be in the region of $20 million and one of the largest payouts was by the Travelers Insurance company of Hartford who paid out a life policy for over $1 million.

The sinking of the Titanic also brought about the first and only insurance claim for a car being hit by an iceberg, by a Mr William Carter who claimed five thousand dollars for his 25 horse power Renault, lost at sea.

Pros and Cons of Watching Television

Many of us love watching TV especially during our free time and if we do not have anything to do. We like watching TV while eating our favorite snacks or hanging around in a friend's place. Either way we are entertained when we watch TV. There are many different programs we can watch on TV depending on our mood and our personality. Some love watching comedy and talk shows while others particularly kids and those who are young at heart love watching cartoons on Cartoon Network or Disney channel.

But then, watching TV has its advantages and disadvantages. Experts say that too much watching of TV especially among children is not good for the health and the mind. TV can be entertaining and informative yet at times it can be damaging and harmful.

Below are the Pros and Cons of watching TV.

Pros:

1.) Entertainment and Laughter
We are entertained by shows we love to watch. We laugh at things we find funny and comical in the TV program we are watching. We also love to dance or sing along with celebrities we see on TV and some of us even copy their dance moves and singing styles.

2.) Information and How-To
We learn a lot of information about places and people that we usually do not learn on magazines, books, and newspapers. There are travel shows that show us beautiful places in the world and inform us the culture of different countries which can be a great help especially if we are planning to travel. We also easily learn how to cook new recipes by watching cooking shows and we can learn doing some other stuff through programs that show step-by-step procedures of performing a particular work, exercise or other interesting stuff.

3.) Improve Memory and Easy Learning
We usually take note of the time schedule for our favorite programs especially if it is only shown once or twice a week. We tend to store and recall the things that recently happened in our favorite show before the next episode will be shown on TV. This will help enhance our memory which we can apply on our daily life. For children, it is easier to learn math, science, alphabet and other subject matters if someone can show them how to do it like counting, identifying objects and a lot more. Educational TV shows are available for children to watch and learn.

4.) Bonding With Family and Friends
Watching TV is a great way to bond with family and friends especially on weekends. You can laugh and discuss things that you see on TV. That can be really fun.

5.) Awareness and Alertness
Weather reports and current news on different parts of the worlds can make you aware of what is happening outside your country. You can also be alert when there is an incoming typhoon in your area and that can help you get prepared.

Cons:
1.) Decline in creativity and imagination.
TV shows including commercials have a tendency to share their creative works on us and apart their ideas and opinions on us which is not favorable and can lead to a decline in our creativity and imagination since we can not think on our own since creative things are readily available And shared to us.

2.) Health problems
We usually eat junk foods or any of our favorite snacks while watching TV. This is not good for our health because we tend to eat a lot while we are sitting down facing the television. This can lead to obesity since we do not move a lot when we watch TV. This can also lead to other serious ailments caused by eating a lot and moving less.

3.) Makes people lazy
Most of us get hooked when watching programs of our favorite TV channel. We sometimes even forget to do our work or other important things because we got engaged in the show we are watching. Some people forget to do their household chores because they would rather watch TV than work.

4.) Some shows do not teach good values.
There are TV programs that do not teach good values ​​particularly to children. Instead of teaching them good deeds they even imitate, re-enact or spoof important things happening around us which is not good for children to watch.

To sum up, in watching TV you should choose and monitor the TV programs that you and your children should watch. Choose programs that can help you learn and grow as a person. You should also limit the time your children spend in watching TV. The maximum number of hours small kids should watch TV is 3 hours while for teenagers you should make sure they watch good shows only when they are done with homework and projects.